The Isle of Whithorn’s ‘Witness Cairn’

By Antony Lee

While on a recent break in the often forgotten part of Scotland known as Dumfries and Galloway, I took a trip to the pretty Isle of Whithorn, which is strongly associated with St Ninian, who is credited with bringing Christianity to Scotland in AD397. You can read more about St Ninian and Whithorn Abbey in Ian Colson’s RCHG ‘Guidebook’ entry, and I want to focus in this post on one specific modern monument that I was not expecting to encounter.

Chapel of St Ninian

Next to the dramatically situated (but sadly temporarily closed to the public) Chapel of St Ninian, which has its origins as a place of pilgrimage in the 1100s, is the ‘Witness Cairn’. This modern structure, created intentionally in 1997 to celebrate the 1,600th anniversary of Ninian’s arrival in Scotland, invites modern pilgrims to leave a stone “as a symbol of an act of witness which you have completed or which you now pledge”.

The size of the Cairn indicates its success, though the visible stones suggest that it’s use in practice has taken a somewhat different turn to that envisaged by the creators (though surely one which they still are proud of), becoming a place of memorial for loved ones. Interestingly, while many stones (likely gathered from the nearby coast) are plain, others bear elaborate decoration, clearly pre-planned and deposited with some reverence.

In a 2009 article, Avril Maddrell explored the phenomenon of the memorial stones and how they reflect the blurred lines in modern Britain between secularity and spirituality. Her thoughtful study investigated the complexity of the accumulation of these highly individual yet collective ‘micro-memorials’, deposited in a liminal location which combines natural beauty and spiritual heritage significance.

As an archaeologist, my own thoughts when viewing the cairn turned to those older memorials now lost from view beneath later additions to the pile – their provision of invisible foundations for their successors both physically and conceptually echoing the passing of the people commemorated on them and our own connections with our ancestors known and unknown.


Avril Maddrell (2009) A place for grief and belief: the Witness Cairn,
Isle of Whithorn, Galloway, Scotland
, Social & Cultural Geography, 10:6, 675-693

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